[Rasch] formative v. reflective measures in assessment research

Luis Carlos Orozco lcorovar at gmail.com
Sun Oct 27 02:32:15 EST 2013


There is a recent article in Frontiers in Psychology august 2013 volume 4
by Stenner, Fisher, Stone , Burdick  "Causal Rasch models". That could help
you.

Luis C. Orozco V. MD MSc
Profesor Asociado
Escuela de Enfermería
Universidad Industrial de Santander
Colombia



2013/10/26 Donald Bacon <dbacon at du.edu>

>  Hi all --****
>
> ** **
>
> To offer more explanation on my reflective v. formative question, in
> reflective measurement models, the construct/latent trait causes the
> measures/indicators/items, whereas in formative models, the measures cause
> the latent trait.  Jarvis, MacKenzie and Podsakoff (J Consumer Research,
> 2003) offer a thorough description of this difference.  They cite Bollen
> and Lennox (Psych Bull, 1991) as identifying the same distinction, except
> that Bollen and Lennox call reflective indicators ‘effects indicators’ in a
> principal component model, and formative indicators ‘causal indicators’ in
> a composite latent construct model.****
>
> ** **
>
> Jarvis et al. cite a formative example from Crosby and Stephens (1987)
> that I will paraphrase here.  In measuring the construct “personal contact
> with life insurance agents”, suppose the following measures are used:****
>
> I was contacted by my agent to make changes in my policy****
>
> I was contacted by my agent to sell me more life insurance****
>
> I was contacted by my agent to describe new insurance offerings****
>
> I was contacted by my agent to keep my policy in place****
>
> ** **
>
> In these items, the agent would not suggest keeping the policy and
> changing the policy, so the inter-item correlations here should be low or
> perhaps even negative, yet all of these statements indicate personal
> contact.  Internal consistency is not necessary for formative measures; to
> assess the quality of formative measures we need to look at
> criterion-related validity.  Thus, formative models are a bit more like
> regression models, where the many independent variables are assumed to have
> no error and may have low intercorrrelations but the one dependent variable
> does have error.****
>
> ** **
>
> Jarvis et al. go on to report how measurement models have often been
> misspecified, even in top marketing journals, as formative measures have
> been treated as reflective and vice versa.  They show how such
> misspecification can bias structural path estimates.  ****
>
> ** **
>
> Getting back to Rasch measurement, it seems to me that Rasch assumes a
> reflective/effects/principal components model.  However, Rasch may
> occasionally be misapplied to formative indicators.  In the latter case,
> model fit and internal consistency would probably be low, but this is due
> mainly to fundamental model misspecification.  Or can Rasch be used with
> formative indicators?****
>
> ** **
>
> Has this type of model misspecification been discussed in the Rasch
> literature?  More specifically, are all tests of ability or knowledge
> generally reflective models?  Is there a good cite that someone can point
> me too? ****
>
> ** **
>
> Thanks for any insights you may be able to provide.****
>
> ** **
>
> Don****
>
> ** **
>
> *From:* rasch-bounces at acer.edu.au [mailto:rasch-bounces at acer.edu.au] *On
> Behalf Of *Bond, Trevor
> *Sent:* Saturday, October 26, 2013 1:17 AM
> *To:* rasch at acer.edu.au
> *Subject:* Re: [Rasch] formative v. reflective measures in assessment
> research****
>
> ** **
>
> Dear Donald,****
>
> Perhaps you could share what you mean by formative and reflective, so we
> might be able better to answer your question.****
>
> Collegially****
>
> TGB****
>
> ** **
>
> *From: *Donald Bacon <dbacon at du.edu>
> *Reply-To: *"rasch at acer.edu.au" <rasch at acer.edu.au>
> *Date: *Saturday, 26 October 2013 3:57 AM
> *To: *"rasch at acer.edu.au" <rasch at acer.edu.au>
> *Subject: *[Rasch] formative v. reflective measures in assessment research
> ****
>
> ** **
>
> Hi all –****
>
>    The Rasch model assumes that each measure in a scale reflects the same
> underlying trait, and so it seems that a reflective measurement model is
> appropriate, and internal consistency is a desirable quality.  But what
> about the case of a long comprehensive exam, such as one we might use for
> assessment.  In my experience, these exams often behave as if they were
> close to unidimensional, even though many different learning outcomes are
> captured.  If well designed, these tests often exhibit high internal
> consistency.  Because the models fit well, I’ve always thought of the
> measures as reflective, but perhaps my theory is wrong even though the fit
> is good; maybe the measures are formative.  Is there any way to use the
> Rasch model with formative indicators?****
>
>  ****
>
> Thanks for any insights you might have –****
>
>  ****
>
> Don ****
>
>  ****
>
> Donald R. Bacon, Ph.D.****
>
> Professor of Marketing****
>
> Editor, Journal of Marketing Education****
>
> Daniels College of Business****
>
> University of Denver****
>
>  ****
>
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