<html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:st1="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40">

<head>
<meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=us-ascii">
<meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 11 (filtered medium)">
<!--[if !mso]>
<style>
v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
.shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
</style>
<![endif]--><o:SmartTagType
 namespaceuri="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" name="PostalCode"/>
<o:SmartTagType namespaceuri="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"
 name="City" downloadurl="http://www.5iamas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"/>
<o:SmartTagType namespaceuri="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"
 name="place" downloadurl="http://www.5iantlavalamp.com/"/>
<o:SmartTagType namespaceuri="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"
 name="address" downloadurl="http://www.5iamas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"/>
<o:SmartTagType namespaceuri="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"
 name="Street" downloadurl="http://www.5iantlavalampft-com:office:smarttags"/>
<o:SmartTagType namespaceuri="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"
 name="State" downloadurl="http://www.5iamas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"/>
<o:SmartTagType namespaceuri="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"
 name="country-region" downloadurl="http://www.5iantlavalamp.com/"/>
<o:SmartTagType namespaceuri="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags"
 name="PersonName"/>
<!--[if !mso]>
<style>
st1\:*{behavior:url(#default#ieooui) }
</style>
<![endif]-->
<style>
<!--
 /* Font Definitions */
 @font-face
        {font-family:Tahoma;
        panose-1:2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2 4;}
 /* Style Definitions */
 p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal
        {margin:0in;
        margin-bottom:.0001pt;
        font-size:12.0pt;
        font-family:"Times New Roman";}
a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
        {color:blue;
        text-decoration:underline;}
a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed
        {color:blue;
        text-decoration:underline;}
p
        {mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
        margin-right:0in;
        mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
        margin-left:0in;
        font-size:12.0pt;
        font-family:"Times New Roman";}
span.EmailStyle18
        {mso-style-type:personal;
        font-family:Arial;
        color:navy;}
span.EmailStyle19
        {mso-style-type:personal-reply;
        font-family:Arial;
        color:navy;}
@page Section1
        {size:595.3pt 841.9pt;
        margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in;}
div.Section1
        {page:Section1;}
-->
</style>

</head>

<body lang=EN-AU link=blue vlink=blue>

<div class=Section1>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Hi Paul,<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>You&#8217;ve raised an important point of
which much attention has been paid at MetaMetrics. There are a few issues here.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Firstly, we report Lexiles in whole
numbers. For theoretical text difficulties we round to the nearest 10 Lexiles
and persons to the nearest 5. Say a grade school child&#8217;s estimated
reading ability comes out at 806.32L. We round this to 805L. If a Harry Potter
book comes out at 1007.15L we round to 1010L (incidentally, we found that J.K
Rowling steadily increased the text difficulty of her novels during the course
of the Harry Potter series).<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Secondly, there is a theory
misspecification error of 64L (Stenner, Burdick, Sanford &amp; Burdick, 2006).
This is an estimate of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) obtained when the
ensemble means of prose text passages or &#8220;text slices&#8221; are
regressed on the Lexile theory. <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>What this means is that a prose text
consisting of <i><span style='font-style:italic'>N</span></i> passages has an
expected error of 64L divided by the square root of <i><span style='font-style:
italic'>N</span></i>. Shorter prose texts thus have a higher expected error
than longer ones. For example, a short, 500 word periodical with 4 passages
will have an expected error of 64 / (4^1/2) = 32L. A Harry Potter novel of 900
text slices has an expected error term of 64 / (900^1/2) = 2L. We have found
that most books have expected errors in the single digits. For example, the
novel &#8220;A Clockwork Orange&#8221; has a text difficulty of 1260L and an
expected error of 3L (Stenner, et al, 2006).<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Thirdly, we have found that person reading
measures from hour long reading tests have an error of around 90L. This is
about half a logit, which is consistent with the error of reading tests since
time immemorial.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>On a related issue, we recently obtained
data using an instructional software application based on the Lexile Framework
for <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Reading</st1:place></st1:City>. We
found that forecasted text comprehension rates (as percentages of correct
responses) matched observed comprehension rates to 3 decimal places.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>I hope this helps. Feel free to ask more
questions.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Best, Andrew<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Ref.:<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Stenner, A.J.; Burdick, H.; Sanford, E.E.
and Burdick, D.S. (2006) How accurate are Lexile text measures? <i><span
style='font-style:italic'>Journal of Applied Measurement</span></i>, <i><span
style='font-style:italic'>7</span></i>(3), 307-322.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><st1:PersonName w:st="on"><font size=4 color=navy
 face=Arial><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;
 color:navy'>Andrew Kyngdon</span></font></st1:PersonName><font size=4
color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:
Arial;color:navy'>, PhD</span></font><font size=4 color=navy><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:14.0pt;color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Senior Research Scientist</span></font><font
size=2 color=navy><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>MetaMetrics, Inc.</span></font><font
size=2 color=navy><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><st1:Street tabIndex="0"
style="BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
w:st="on"><st1:address tabIndex="0"
 style="BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
 w:st="on"><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
  style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>1000 Park Forty Plaza
  Drive</span></font></st1:address></st1:Street><font size=2 color=navy><span
lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><st1:place tabIndex="0"
style="BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
w:st="on"><st1:City tabIndex="0"
 style="BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
 w:st="on"><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
  style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Durham</span></font></st1:City><font
 size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;
 font-family:Arial;color:navy'> <st1:State tabIndex="0"
 style="BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
 w:st="on">NC</st1:State> <st1:PostalCode w:st="on">27713</st1:PostalCode> <st1:country-region
 tabIndex="0"
 style="BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
 w:st="on">USA</st1:country-region></span></font></st1:place><font size=2
color=navy><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Tel. 1 919&nbsp;354 3473</span></font><font
size=2 color=navy><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Fax. 1 919 547 3401</span></font><font
color=navy><span lang=EN-US style='color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>3rd International Conference
in Rasch measurement,<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>January 22-24 2008,
Perth, Australia<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><a
href="http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/__data/page/115936/Rasch_conference_v12.pdf">http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/__data/page/115936/Rasch_conference_v12.pdf</a><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>&nbsp;</span></font><font
size=2 face=Arial><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

</div>

<div>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><font size=3
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center tabindex=-1>

</span></font></div>

<p class=MsoNormal><b><font size=2 face=Tahoma><span lang=EN-US
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Tahoma;font-weight:bold'>From:</span></font></b><font
size=2 face=Tahoma><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Tahoma'>
rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au [mailto:rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au] <b><span
style='font-weight:bold'>On Behalf Of </span></b>Paul Barrett<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Sent:</span></b> Monday, October 22, 2007
5:43 PM<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>To:</span></b> rasch@acer.edu.au<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Subject:</span></b> RE: [Rasch] Units of
measurement in the social sciences</span></font><span lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<blockquote style='border:none;border-left:solid black 1.5pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 4.0pt;
margin-left:3.75pt;margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:5.0pt'>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><font size=2
face=Arial><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center tabIndex=-1>

</span></font></div>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><b><font size=2 face=Tahoma><span
lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Tahoma;font-weight:bold'>From:</span></font></b><font
size=2 face=Tahoma><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Tahoma'>
rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au [mailto:rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au] <b><span
style='font-weight:bold'>On Behalf Of </span></b><st1:PersonName w:st="on">Andrew
 Kyngdon</st1:PersonName><br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Sent:</span></b> Tuesday, October 23, 2007
10:06 AM<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>To:</span></b> rasch@acer.edu.au<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Subject:</span></b> RE: [Rasch] Units of
measurement in the social sciences</span></font><font size=2 face=Arial><span
lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>My two cents&#8230;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>...The unit of measurement in the Lexile
reading scale is defined as 1/1000<sup>th</sup> of the difference in
comprehensibility between basal primer texts and Grolier&#8217;s (1986)
Encyclopaedia (Stenner, 1986).&nbsp;</span></font>&nbsp;<font size=2
color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;
color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</blockquote>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial'>Hello Andrew</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial'>Out&nbsp;of interest, what is the degree of precision of
measurement of this unit? i.e. to what level of precision can the unit be
measured (0, 1, 2, 3, 5 decimal places etc.)</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial'>Regards ... Paul</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 align=left
 width=500 style='width:375.0pt;border-collapse:collapse' id=table1>
 <tr height=66 style='height:49.5pt'>
  <td width=223 height=66 style='width:167.25pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:49.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-element:frame'><font size=3
  face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><img border=0
  width=150 height=66 id="_x0000_i1026" src="cid:image002.jpg@01C8155E.58034EA0"><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
  <td width=277 height=66 style='width:207.75pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:49.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-element:frame'><font size=3
  face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr height=14 style='height:10.5pt'>
  <td width=223 height=14 style='width:167.25pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:10.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:10.5pt;mso-element:frame'><b><font
  size=1 color=gray face=Arial><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:Arial;
  color:gray;font-weight:bold'>Paul Barrett, Ph.D.</span></font></b><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
  <td width=277 height=14 style='width:207.75pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:10.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:10.5pt;mso-element:frame'><st1:Street
  w:st="on"><st1:address w:st="on"><b><font size=1 color=gray face=Arial><span
    style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:gray;font-weight:bold'>2622
    East 21st Street</span></font></b></st1:address></st1:Street><b><font
  size=1 color=gray face=Arial><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:Arial;
  color:gray;font-weight:bold'> | <!--StartFragment--><st1:place w:st="on"><st1:City
   w:st="on">Tulsa</st1:City>, <st1:State w:st="on">OK</st1:State>&nbsp; <st1:PostalCode
   w:st="on">74114</st1:PostalCode></st1:place></span></font></b><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr height=14 style='height:10.5pt'>
  <td width=223 height=14 style='width:167.25pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:10.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:10.5pt;mso-element:frame'><b><font
  size=1 color=gray face=Arial><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:Arial;
  color:gray;font-weight:bold'>Chief Research Scientist</span></font></b><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
  <td width=277 height=14 style='width:207.75pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:10.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:10.5pt;mso-element:frame'><b><font
  size=1 color=gray face=Arial><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:Arial;
  color:gray;font-weight:bold'>Office | 918.749.0632&nbsp; Fax | 918.749.0635</span></font></b><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr height=14 style='height:10.5pt'>
  <td width=223 height=14 style='width:167.25pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:10.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:10.5pt;mso-element:frame'><b><font
  size=1 color=gray face=Arial><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:Arial;
  color:gray;font-weight:bold'>pbarrett@hoganassessments.com</span></font></b><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
  <td width=277 height=14 style='width:207.75pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:10.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:10.5pt;mso-element:frame'><b><font
  size=1 color=gray face=Arial><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:Arial;
  color:gray;font-weight:bold'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></b><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr height=19 style='height:14.25pt'>
  <td width=223 height=19 style='width:167.25pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:14.25pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-element:frame'><b><font size=3 face=Arial><span
  style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;font-weight:bold'><a
  href="http://www.hoganassessments.com/"
  title="http://www.hoganassessments.com/"><font size=1 color=gray><span
  style='font-size:8.0pt;color:gray;text-decoration:none'><span
  title="http://www.hoganassessments.com/">hoganassessments.com</span></span></font></a></span></font></b><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
  <td width=277 height=19 style='width:207.75pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;
  height:14.25pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-element:frame'><font size=3
  face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
</table>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:-5.25pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p><font size=3 color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
color:black'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p><font size=3 color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
color:black'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

</div>

</body>

</html>