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<p class=MsoNormal><span class=EmailStyle21><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Hi Anthony
and Thomas,<o:p></o:p></span></font></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=EmailStyle21><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>There is a
very full discussion of the distinction between Likert scales and Rasch Partial
Credit models in Bond And Fox, Applying the Rasch Model, Chapter 6. <o:p></o:p></span></font></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=EmailStyle21><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><![if !supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=EmailStyle21><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>A
different example drawn from a satisfaction survey is on my site at: <a
href="http://members.ozemail.com.au/~rodstaples/Measurement3.htm">http://members.ozemail.com.au/~rodstaples/Measurement3.htm</a>
<o:p></o:p></span></font></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=EmailStyle21><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><![if !supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=EmailStyle21><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Hope this
helps,<o:p></o:p></span></font></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=EmailStyle21><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Rod<o:p></o:p></span></font></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><span class=EmailStyle21><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><![if !supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></span></p>

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<p class=MsoAutoSig><!--[if supportFields]><span class=EmailStyle19><font 
size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:
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style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</span>AUTOTEXTLIST \s &quot;E-mail 
Signature&quot; <span style='mso-element:field-separator'></span></span></font></span><![endif]--><font
size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:navy'>___________________________________________________________________________</span></font><font
size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:navy;
mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoAutoSig><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
color:navy'>Dr. Rodney Staples.</span></font><font size=2 color=navy
face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:
Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:navy;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoAutoSig><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
color:navy'>e-mail: rodstaples@ozemail.com.au</span></font><font size=2
color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:navy;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoAutoSig><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
color:navy'>Telephone: +61 3 9770 2484</span></font><font size=2 color=navy
face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:
Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:navy;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

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color:navy'>Web: http://members.ozemail.com.au/~rodstaples/</span></font><font
size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:navy;
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<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=2 color=black
face=Tahoma><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Tahoma;color:black'>-----Original
Message-----<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>From:</span></b> rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au
[mailto:rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au]<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>On Behalf
Of </span></b>Thomas Salzberger<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Sent:</span></b> Thursday, 11 March 2010
12:02 AM<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>To:</span></b> rasch@acer.edu.au<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Subject:</span></b> Re: [Rasch] RSM &amp; PCM</span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=3
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt'><![if !supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>At 13:42
10.03.2010, you wrote:<br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-right:36.0pt;mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Thanks
Thomas,<br>
It seems that these are just a set of&nbsp; assumptions that we have about our
data. I was under the impression that when we talk about unequal distances
either within or across the items we model the distances and weight them
accordingly. That is, each category gets a different score depending on its
difficulty. Something along these lines. I think there are some models which
requie this, aren't there?<br>
So we do not need to have such complicated modelling.<br>
We just choose the type of the analysis depending on what we think of our data.
Right?</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><br>
<br>
That is exactly right. Sometimes a common rating scale makes sense. One could
at least try it.<br>
Obviously it does not make sense when the categories are worded differently and
it is impossible to run the RSM when the number of categories varies.<br>
(That said, you can actually have several RSMs within your instrument with some
items sharing a common rating scale structure and others not.)<br>
<br>
The important thing is that weighting category scores (or, in general, item
scores) is never related to the difficulty of an item (we do not weight
difficult dichotomous items higher than easy ones). This is always the case,
even in general IRT.<br>
<br>
Weighting refers to discrimination. In the 2pl, items are weighted differently
because of different discrimination, not because of different difficulty.<br>
<br>
In the RSM as well as in the PCM, the discrimination is assumed to be equal as
this is a key property of the Rasch model.<br>
However, in the PCM this fact is somewhat obscured by the fact that different
threshold distances between items lead to ICCs which do intersect. <br>
But at the level of each threshold, the latent response curves are in fact
parallel.<br>
<br>
If it helps to illustrate the last point, I might send you a graph from RUMM
which illustrates this nicely.<br>
<br>
Thomas<br>
<br>
<br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-right:36.0pt;mso-margin-top-alt:auto;
mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Anthony<br>
<br>
--- On <b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Wed, 3/10/10, Thomas Salzberger <i><span
style='font-style:italic'>&lt;thomas.salzberger@gmail.com&gt;</span></i></span></b>
wrote: </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>From:
Thomas Salzberger &lt;thomas.salzberger@gmail.com&gt; </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Subject:
Re: [Rasch] RSM &amp; PCM </span></font><font color=black><span
style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>To:
rasch@acer.edu.au </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;
mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Date:
Wednesday, March 10, 2010, 6:13 AM</span></font><font color=black><span
style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Anthony,</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>let
us assume we have a four category item, so there are three thresholds (0/1, 1/2
and 2/3, referred to as tau1, tau2 and tau3, respectively) </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>In
the Rating scale model, the distance between the thresholds tau1 and tau2 does
NOT need to be equal to the distance between tau2 and tau3. </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>But
the difference between tau1 and tau2 has to be equal across all items. Likewise
the difference between tau2 and tau3 has to be the same for all items. </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>So,
no restrctions within the item but restrictions across items.</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>In
other words, in the PCM, each item has its own rating scale structure, while in
the rating scale model we have a common rating scale structure across all
items. </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>The
RSM is therefore more restrictive. Whether the PCM fits statistically
significantly better than the RSM can be tested by a likelihood ratio test.</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>What you have
in mind, a model where all distances between pairs of adjacent thresholds are
equal, would be even more restrictive than the RSM.</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>At
12:39 10.03.2010, Anthony James wrote:</span></font><font color=black><span
style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>I
was just wondering how PCM accomodates unequal distances when we do not model
them. </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>I
am sorry, I don't get this statement. When we do not model unequal distances
(across items), i.e. we model equal distances, we do not apply the PCM.<br>
<br>
<br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>We
just sum up correct responses on each polytomy and analyse it. </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><![if !supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]></span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>We always do
that. If it's a Rasch model, then raw score sufficiency holds.</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Thomas<br>
<br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>A
sum score is in fact given to the analysis and not modelled distances among
items. Doesn't here a PCM reduce to an RSM? </span></font><font color=black><span
style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Cheers
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Anthony</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>---
On Wed, 3/3/10, Anthony James &lt;luckyantonio2003@yahoo.com&gt; wrote: </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>From:
Anthony James &lt;luckyantonio2003@yahoo.com&gt; </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Subject:
[Rasch] RSM &amp; PCM </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;
mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>To:
rasch@acer.edu.au </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;
mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Date:
Wednesday, March 3, 2010, 2:17 AM</span></font><font color=black><span
style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>--</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Dear
All, </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>I
know that this is a very old and probably a boring question for many of you.
But I need to know this </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:
black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>What
is the difference between rating&nbsp; scale model and partial credit model? </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>What
I have gathered is that in RSM the distances between the points on the scale is
equal and this distance is the same for all the items in the instrument. That
is, the ability difference needed to endorse 3 rather than 2 is the same as the
ability difference needed to endorse 5 rather than 4. Right?</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>In
PCM, however, the distances between points on the scale is unequal&nbsp; both
within the items and between the items in the instrument. That is, the ability
increment to score 3 on an item rather than 2 is not the same as the ability
increment needed to score 6 rather than 5. And these distances are unequal
among&nbsp; the items in the test. Right?</span></font><font color=black><span
style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Cheers
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Anthony
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>&nbsp;<br>
<br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>-----Inline
Attachment Follows----- </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:
black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>_______________________________________________
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Rasch
mailing list </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;
mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><a
href="??.htm">Rasch@acer.edu.au</a> </span></font><font color=black><span
style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><a
href="https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch" eudora=autourl>https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch</a><br
style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>_______________________________________________
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Rasch
mailing list </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;
mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Rasch@acer.edu.au
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><a
href="https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch">https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch</a></span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>_______________________________________________________
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Dr.
Thomas Salzberger </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;
mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><a
href="http://www2.wu-wien.ac.at/marketing/user/salzberger/" eudora=autourl>http://www2.wu-wien.ac.at/marketing/user/salzberger/</a>
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><a
href="http://www.wu.ac.at/statmath/faculty_staff/lecturer/salzberger"
eudora=autourl>http://www.wu.ac.at/statmath/faculty_staff/lecturer/salzberger</a>
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><a
href="http://www.wu.ac.at/mm/team/salzberg" eudora=autourl>http://www.wu.ac.at/mm/team/salzberg</a>
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Email: Thomas.Salzberger@wu.ac.at,
Thomas.Salzberger@gmail.com<br>
<br>
<br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<h5 style='margin-right:36.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><b><font size=2 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black'>&quot;You can
exist without wine but you cannot live...&quot; Jack Mann </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></h5>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><br
style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Measurement
in Marketing - An alternative framework: <a
href="http://www.e-elgar-business.com/Bookentry_DESCRIPTION.lasso?id=13315">http://www.e-elgar-business.com/Bookentry_DESCRIPTION.lasso?id=13315</a>
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=2
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black'>Copenhagen
2010 International Conference on Probabilistic Models for Measurement: <a
href="http://www.matildabayclub.net/">http://www.matildabayclub.net</a> , <a
href="http://www.rasch2010.cbs.dk/" eudora=autourl>http://www.rasch2010.cbs.dk/</a>
<a href="http://www.rasch2010.cbs.dk/" eudora=autourl></a></span></font><font
size=2 color=black><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=2
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black'>The
Matilda Bay Club: <a href="http://www.matildabayclub.net/">http://www.matildabayclub.net</a>
</span></font><font size=2 color=black><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=2
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black'>Rasch
Courses: <a href="http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses">http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses</a>,
<a href="http://home.btconnect.com/Psylab_at_Leeds/" eudora=autourl>http://home.btconnect.com/Psylab_at_Leeds/</a>
<a href="http://home.btconnect.com/Psylab_at_Leeds/" eudora=autourl></a></span></font><font
size=2 color=black><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black;mso-color-alt:
windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=2
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black'>der
markt - Journal für Marketing: <a href="http://www.springer.com/dermarkt">http://www.springer.com/dermarkt</a>
</span></font><font size=2 color=black><span style='font-size:10.0pt;
color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=2 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black'>Präferenzanalyse
mit R @ Amazon: <a
href="http://www.amazon.de/Pr%C3%A4ferenzanalyse-mit-Anwendungen-Behavioural-Management/dp/3708903854/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&amp;s=books&amp;qid=1243162762&amp;sr=1-2">http://www.amazon.de/Pr%C3%A4ferenzanalyse-mit-Anwendungen-Behavioural-Management/dp/3708903854/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&amp;s=books&amp;qid=1243162762&amp;sr=1-2</a>
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black'>-------------------------------------------------
Please consider the environment before you print</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>-----Inline
Attachment Follows-----</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;
mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>_______________________________________________
</span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>Rasch
mailing list </span></font><font color=black><span style='color:black;
mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><a
href="/mc/compose?to=Rasch@acer.edu.htm">Rasch@acer.edu.au</a> </span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'><a
href="https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch" eudora=autourl>https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch</a></span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;color:black'>-------------------------------------------------
Please consider the environment before you print</span></font><font
color=black><span style='color:black;mso-color-alt:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

-------------------------------------------------
Please consider the environment before you print<p></p>
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