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<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Purya. I am surprised
that you were able to find that article. First I regret calling that parameterization
of the general polytomous, unidimensional Rasch model as a model &#8211; it is just a
particular parameterization, just as is the partial credit and rating scale a
parameterizations are that too. <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Second, like all models
and parameterizations, they may not be practical. However, the point of that
paper was to summarize quickly whether or not, in explicit quantitative terms, there
was any local dependence.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Finally, RUMM does have
that parameterization as a particular option for analysis. I do not know about
other programs. <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Hope that helps.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>David<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><st1:PersonName w:st="on"><strong><b><font size=2
 color=black face=Calibri><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:11.0pt;line-height:
 115%;font-family:Calibri;color:black'>David Andrich</span></font></b></strong></st1:PersonName></st1:PersonName><strong><b><font
color=black face=Calibri><span lang=EN-AU style='font-family:Calibri;
color:black'> </span></font></b></strong><font color=black><span lang=EN-AU
style='color:black'> BSc, MEd (<i><span style='font-style:italic'>UWA</span></i>),
PhD (<i><span style='font-style:italic'>Chic</span></i>) FASSA<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=black face=Calibri><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%;color:black'>Chapple Professor&nbsp;<br>
<a href="mailto:david.andrich@uwa.edu.au"><font color=navy><span
style='color:navy'>david.andrich@uwa.edu.au</span></font></a><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=black face=Calibri><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%;color:black'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

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 w:st="on">School</st1:PlaceType></st1:PlaceType></st1:PlaceType></st1:PlaceType></span></font></st1:place><font
color=black><span lang=EN-AU style='color:black'> of Education<br>
The <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:PlaceType w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on"><st1:PlaceType
 w:st="on">University</st1:PlaceType></st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st="on"><st1:PlaceName
 w:st="on">Western Australia</st1:PlaceName></st1:place></st1:PlaceName></st1:place><br>
M428, <st1:address w:st="on"><st1:Street w:st="on"><st1:address w:st="on"><st1:Street w:st="on"><st1:Street w:st="on"><st1:address w:st="on"><st1:Street
w:st="on"><st1:address w:st="on">35 Stirling Highway</st1:address></st1:Street></st1:Street></st1:address></st1:Street></st1:address></st1:address></st1:Street>,
<st1:City w:st="on"><st1:City w:st="on"><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><st1:place w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on"><font size=2
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color=black><span lang=EN-AU style='color:black'> , 6009<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on"><st1:country-region
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color=black><span lang=EN-AU style='color:black'><br>
<br>
</st1:State></st1:State></st1:PlaceName></st1:place>Telephone: +61 8 6488 1085<br>
Fax: +61 8 6488 1052<br>
www.gse.uwa.edu.au<br>
CRICOS Code: 00126G</span><o:p></o:p></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=black face=Calibri><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%;color:black'><a
href="blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl"
title="blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl&#10;blocked::blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl&#10;blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl">Pearson
Psychometric Laboratory</a></span></font><font color=navy><span lang=EN-AU
style='color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=black face=Calibri><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%;color:black'><a
href="blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses"
title="blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses&#10;blocked::blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses&#10;blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses">http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses</a></span></font><font
size=2 color=navy><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;
color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=black face=Calibri><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%;color:black'><a
href="http://www.matildabayclub.net"
title="blocked::http://www.matildabayclub.net/&#10;blocked::blocked::http://www.matildabayclub.net/&#10;blocked::http://www.matildabayclub.net/">www.matildabayclub.net</a></span></font><font
size=3 color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:
12.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Calibri><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%;color:navy'><a
href="http://www.rasch2010.cbs.dk">www.rasch2010.cbs.dk</a><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;
text-align:center;line-height:normal'><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span
style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center tabindex=-1>

</span></font></div>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
normal'><b><font size=2 face=Tahoma><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Tahoma;font-weight:bold'>From:</span></font></b><font size=2 face=Tahoma><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Tahoma'> rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au [mailto:rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au]
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>On Behalf Of </span></b>Purya Baghaei<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Sent:</span></b> Friday, 12 March 2010 4:26
PM<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>To:</span></b> rasch@acer.edu.au<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Subject:</span></b> Re: [Rasch] RSM &amp; PCM</span></font><font
size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face=Calibri><span style='font-size:11.0pt;
line-height:115%'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face=Calibri><span style='font-size:11.0pt;
line-height:115%'>Anthony and Thomas,<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face=Calibri><span style='font-size:11.0pt;
line-height:115%'>Andrich (1985) proposed a model called &#8222;equidistant&#8220; or DLIM
model, I think. This model assumes that the distances between the thresholds
within the items are equal but not necessarily across the items. The model was
suggested to account for local dependency in educational tests where several
items are based on one prompt by forming testlets. The assumption of equal
distances between thresholds within items in educational tests sounds rather
impractical. I&#8217;m not sure if it&#8217;s implemented in any software. Does anyone out
there know of a Rasch programme that fits equidistant model? Or is it possible
to fit the model with some command statements in Winsteps, ConQuest or RUMM?<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face=Calibri><span style='font-size:11.0pt;
line-height:115%'>Regards<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 face=Calibri><span style='font-size:11.0pt;
line-height:115%'>Purya <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'><font
size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
normal'><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman"'>On Wed, Mar 10, 2010 at 2:52 PM, Rodney Staples
&lt;<a href="mailto:rodstaples@ozemail.com.au">rodstaples@ozemail.com.au</a>&gt;
wrote:<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<div link=blue vlink=blue>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Hi
Anthony and Thomas,</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>There is
a very full discussion of the distinction between Likert scales and Rasch
Partial Credit models in Bond And Fox, Applying the Rasch Model, Chapter 6. </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>&nbsp;</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>A
different example drawn from a satisfaction survey is on my site at: <a
href="http://members.ozemail.com.au/%7Erodstaples/Measurement3.htm"
target="_blank">http://members.ozemail.com.au/~rodstaples/Measurement3.htm</a> </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>&nbsp;</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Hope
this helps,</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Rod</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>&nbsp;</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>&nbsp;</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>&nbsp;</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial;color:navy'>___________________________________________________________________________</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Dr. Rodney Staples.</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial;color:navy'>e-mail: <a href="mailto:rodstaples@ozemail.com.au"
target="_blank">rodstaples@ozemail.com.au</a></span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Telephone: +61 3 9770 2484</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on"><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span
  lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Mobile</span></font></st1:place></st1:City><font
size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial;color:navy'>: +61 4 1935 9082</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Web: <a
href="http://members.ozemail.com.au/%7Erodstaples/" target="_blank">http://members.ozemail.com.au/~rodstaples/</a></span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<div>

<div>

<p><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial;color:navy'>&nbsp;</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal><font size=2 color=navy face=Arial><span lang=EN-AU
style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>&nbsp;</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=2 color=black
face=Tahoma><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;
font-family:Tahoma;color:black'>-----Original Message-----<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>From:</span></b> <a
href="mailto:rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au" target="_blank">rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au</a>
[mailto:<a href="mailto:rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au" target="_blank">rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au</a>]<b><span
style='font-weight:bold'>On Behalf Of </span></b>Thomas Salzberger<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Sent:</span></b> Thursday, 11 March 2010
12:02 AM<br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>To:</span></b> <a
href="mailto:rasch@acer.edu.au" target="_blank">rasch@acer.edu.au</a><br>
<b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Subject:</span></b> Re: [Rasch] RSM &amp; PCM</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=3
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:
12.0pt;margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=3 color=black face="Times New Roman"><span
lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";
color:black'>At 13:42 10.03.2010, you wrote:</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:10.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Thanks Thomas,<br>
It seems that these are just a set of&nbsp; assumptions that we have about our
data. I was under the impression that when we talk about unequal distances
either within or across the items we model the distances and weight them
accordingly. That is, each category gets a different score depending on its
difficulty. Something along these lines. I think there are some models which
requie this, aren't there?<br>
So we do not need to have such complicated modelling.<br>
We just choose the type of the analysis depending on what we think of our data.
Right?</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:
12.0pt;margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=3 color=black face="Times New Roman"><span
lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";
color:black'><br>
<br>
That is exactly right. Sometimes a common rating scale makes sense. One could
at least try it.<br>
Obviously it does not make sense when the categories are worded differently and
it is impossible to run the RSM when the number of categories varies.<br>
(That said, you can actually have several RSMs within your instrument with some
items sharing a common rating scale structure and others not.)<br>
<br>
The important thing is that weighting category scores (or, in general, item
scores) is never related to the difficulty of an item (we do not weight difficult
dichotomous items higher than easy ones). This is always the case, even in
general IRT.<br>
<br>
Weighting refers to discrimination. In the 2pl, items are weighted differently
because of different discrimination, not because of different difficulty.<br>
<br>
In the RSM as well as in the PCM, the discrimination is assumed to be equal as
this is a key property of the Rasch model.<br>
However, in the PCM this fact is somewhat obscured by the fact that different
threshold distances between items lead to ICCs which do intersect. <br>
But at the level of each threshold, the latent response curves are in fact
parallel.<br>
<br>
If it helps to illustrate the last point, I might send you a graph from RUMM
which illustrates this nicely.<br>
<br>
Thomas<br>
<br>
<br>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:10.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Anthony<br>
<br>
--- On <b><span style='font-weight:bold'>Wed, 3/10/10, Thomas Salzberger <i><span
style='font-style:italic'>&lt;<a href="mailto:thomas.salzberger@gmail.com"
target="_blank">thomas.salzberger@gmail.com</a>&gt;</span></i></span></b>
wrote: </span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>From: Thomas
Salzberger &lt;<a href="mailto:thomas.salzberger@gmail.com" target="_blank">thomas.salzberger@gmail.com</a>&gt;
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Subject: Re:
[Rasch] RSM &amp; PCM </span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>To: <a
href="mailto:rasch@acer.edu.au" target="_blank">rasch@acer.edu.au</a> </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Date: Wednesday,
March 10, 2010, 6:13 AM</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Anthony,</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>let us assume we
have a four category item, so there are three thresholds (0/1, 1/2 and 2/3,
referred to as tau1, tau2 and tau3, respectively) </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>In the Rating scale
model, the distance between the thresholds tau1 and tau2 does NOT need to be
equal to the distance between tau2 and tau3. </span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>But the difference
between tau1 and tau2 has to be equal across all items. Likewise the difference
between tau2 and tau3 has to be the same for all items. </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>So, no restrctions
within the item but restrictions across items.</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>In other words, in
the PCM, each item has its own rating scale structure, while in the rating
scale model we have a common rating scale structure across all items. </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>The RSM is
therefore more restrictive. Whether the PCM fits statistically significantly
better than the RSM can be tested by a likelihood ratio test.</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>What you have in mind, a model
where all distances between pairs of adjacent thresholds are equal, would be
even more restrictive than the RSM.</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>At 12:39
10.03.2010, Anthony James wrote:</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>I was just
wondering how PCM accomodates unequal distances when we do not model them. </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>I am sorry, I don't get this
statement. When we do not model unequal distances (across items), i.e. we model
equal distances, we do not apply the PCM.<br>
<br>
<br>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>We just sum up
correct responses on each polytomy and analyse it. </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:36.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>&nbsp;</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>We always do that. If it's a
Rasch model, then raw score sufficiency holds.</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Thomas<br>
<br>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>A sum score is in
fact given to the analysis and not modelled distances among items. Doesn't here
a PCM reduce to an RSM? </span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Cheers </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Anthony</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>--- On Wed, 3/3/10,
Anthony James &lt;<a href="mailto:luckyantonio2003@yahoo.com" target="_blank">luckyantonio2003@yahoo.com</a>&gt;
wrote: </span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>From: Anthony James
&lt;<a href="mailto:luckyantonio2003@yahoo.com" target="_blank">luckyantonio2003@yahoo.com</a>&gt;
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Subject: [Rasch]
RSM &amp; PCM </span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>To: <a
href="mailto:rasch@acer.edu.au" target="_blank">rasch@acer.edu.au</a> </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Date: Wednesday, March 3, 2010,
2:17 AM</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>--</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Dear All, </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>I know that this is
a very old and probably a boring question for many of you. But I need to know
this </span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>What is the
difference between rating&nbsp; scale model and partial credit model? </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>What I have
gathered is that in RSM the distances between the points on the scale is equal
and this distance is the same for all the items in the instrument. That is, the
ability difference needed to endorse 3 rather than 2 is the same as the ability
difference needed to endorse 5 rather than 4. Right?</span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>In PCM, however,
the distances between points on the scale is unequal&nbsp; both within the
items and between the items in the instrument. That is, the ability increment
to score 3 on an item rather than 2 is not the same as the ability increment
needed to score 6 rather than 5. And these distances are unequal among&nbsp;
the items in the test. Right?</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Cheers </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Anthony </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>&nbsp;<br>
<br>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>-----Inline
Attachment Follows----- </span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>_______________________________________________
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Rasch mailing list </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><a
href="http://??.htm" target="_blank">Rasch@acer.edu.au</a> </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><a
href="https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch" target="_blank">https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch</a></span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>_______________________________________________
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Rasch mailing list </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><a
href="mailto:Rasch@acer.edu.au" target="_blank">Rasch@acer.edu.au</a> </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:72.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><a
href="https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch" target="_blank">https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch</a></span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>_______________________________________________________
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Dr. Thomas
Salzberger </span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><a
href="http://www2.wu-wien.ac.at/marketing/user/salzberger/" target="_blank">http://www2.wu-wien.ac.at/marketing/user/salzberger/</a>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><a
href="http://www.wu.ac.at/statmath/faculty_staff/lecturer/salzberger"
target="_blank">http://www.wu.ac.at/statmath/faculty_staff/lecturer/salzberger</a>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><a
href="http://www.wu.ac.at/mm/team/salzberg" target="_blank">http://www.wu.ac.at/mm/team/salzberg</a>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Email: <a
href="mailto:Thomas.Salzberger@wu.ac.at" target="_blank">Thomas.Salzberger@wu.ac.at</a>,
<a href="mailto:Thomas.Salzberger@gmail.com" target="_blank">Thomas.Salzberger@gmail.com</a><br>
<br>
<br>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<h5 style='mso-margin-top-alt:5.0pt;margin-right:36.0pt;margin-bottom:5.0pt;
margin-left:72.0pt'><b><font size=2 color=black face="Times New Roman"><span
lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black'>&quot;You can exist without
wine but you cannot live...&quot; Jack Mann </span></font></b><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></h5>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=2 face=Calibri><span
lang=EN-AU style='font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Measurement in
Marketing - An alternative framework: <a
href="http://www.e-elgar-business.com/Bookentry_DESCRIPTION.lasso?id=13315"
target="_blank">http://www.e-elgar-business.com/Bookentry_DESCRIPTION.lasso?id=13315</a>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=2
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Copenhagen 2010
International Conference on Probabilistic Models for Measurement: <a
href="http://www.matildabayclub.net/" target="_blank">http://www.matildabayclub.net</a>
, <a href="http://www.rasch2010.cbs.dk/" target="_blank">http://www.rasch2010.cbs.dk/</a>
<a href="http://www.rasch2010.cbs.dk/" target="_blank"></a></span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><st1:PersonName
w:st="on"><font size=2 color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU
 style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";
 color:black'>The <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Matilda</st1:PlaceName>
  <st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Bay</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> Club</span></font></st1:PersonName><font
size=2 color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:
10.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>: <a
href="http://www.matildabayclub.net/" target="_blank">http://www.matildabayclub.net</a>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=2
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Rasch Courses: <a
href="http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses" target="_blank">http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses</a>,
<a href="http://home.btconnect.com/Psylab_at_Leeds/" target="_blank">http://home.btconnect.com/Psylab_at_Leeds/</a>
<a href="http://home.btconnect.com/Psylab_at_Leeds/" target="_blank"></a></span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=2
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>der markt - Journal
für Marketing: <a href="http://www.springer.com/dermarkt" target="_blank">http://www.springer.com/dermarkt</a>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:12.0pt;margin-left:72.0pt'><font size=2 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:10.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Präferenzanalyse mit R @
Amazon: <a
href="http://www.amazon.de/Pr%C3%A4ferenzanalyse-mit-Anwendungen-Behavioural-Management/dp/3708903854/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&amp;s=books&amp;qid=1243162762&amp;sr=1-2"
target="_blank">http://www.amazon.de/Pr%C3%A4ferenzanalyse-mit-Anwendungen-Behavioural-Management/dp/3708903854/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&amp;s=books&amp;qid=1243162762&amp;sr=1-2</a>
</span></font><font color=black><span lang=EN-AU style='color:black'>-------------------------------------------------
Please consider the environment before you print</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>-----Inline
Attachment Follows-----</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>_______________________________________________
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Rasch mailing list </span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><a
href="http://mc/compose?to=Rasch@acer.edu.htm" target="_blank">Rasch@acer.edu.au</a>
</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:36.0pt;
margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:72.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><font size=3
color=black face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;
line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><a
href="https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch" target="_blank">https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch</a></span></font><span
lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:36.0pt'><font size=3 color=black
face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:12.0pt;line-height:
115%;font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>-------------------------------------------------
Please consider the environment before you print</span></font><span lang=EN-AU><o:p></o:p></span></p>

</div>

</div>

</div>

<div>

<div>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
normal'><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span lang=EN-AU style='font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>-------------------------------------------------
Please consider the environment before you print<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

</div>

</div>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;line-height:normal'><font
size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'><br>
_______________________________________________<br>
Rasch mailing list<br>
<a href="mailto:Rasch@acer.edu.au">Rasch@acer.edu.au</a><br>
<a href="https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch" target="_blank">https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/listinfo/rasch</a><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:
normal'><font size=3 face="Times New Roman"><span style='font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:"Times New Roman"'><br>
<br clear=all>
<br>
-- <br>
Purya Baghaei, Ph.D<br>
English Department,<br>
Islamic <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Azad</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType
 w:st="on">University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,<br>
Ostad Yusofi Str.<br>
<st1:place w:st="on"><st1:City w:st="on">Mashad</st1:City>, <st1:country-region
 w:st="on">Iran</st1:country-region></st1:place>.<br>
Phone: +98 511 6634763<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

-------------------------------------------------
Please consider the environment before you print<p></p>
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