<html><body><div style="color:#000; background-color:#fff; font-family:HelveticaNeue, Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, Lucida Grande, sans-serif;font-size:14px"><div id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3764" dir="ltr"><span id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3767">Thank you Prof Conner,</span></div><div id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3764" dir="ltr"><span id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3767"><br></span></div><div id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3764" dir="ltr"><span id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3767">Is it possible to find out cheating cases through statistics?</span></div><div id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3764" dir="ltr"><span id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3767"><br></span></div><div id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3764" dir="ltr"><span id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3767">Best</span></div><div id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3764" dir="ltr"><span id="yui_3_16_0_1_1417871922780_3767">Parisa</span></div> <div class="qtdSeparateBR"><br><br></div><div class="yahoo_quoted" style="display: block; "> <div style="font-family: HelveticaNeue, Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, Lucida Grande, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;"> <div style="font-family: HelveticaNeue, Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, Lucida Grande, sans-serif; font-size: 16px;"> <div dir="ltr"> <font size="2" face="Arial"> On Saturday, December 6, 2014 6:14 AM, Tom Conner &lt;connert@msu.edu&gt; wrote:<br> </font> </div>  <br><br> <div class="y_msg_container"><div id="yiv4173370138"><div>
    Thinking substantively, it could be that the test was too easy for
    the population, that there was cheating, or some other aspect of the
    administration or population.<br clear="none">
    <br clear="none">
    <div class="yiv4173370138yqt8937176277" id="yiv4173370138yqt36943"><div class="yiv4173370138moz-cite-prefix">On 12/5/14, 9:35 PM, Parisa Daftari
      Fard wrote:<br clear="none">
    </div>
    <blockquote type="cite">
      <div style="color:#000;background-color:#fff;font-family:HelveticaNeue, Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, Lucida Grande, sans-serif;font-size:14px;">
        <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_2758"><span>Thank
            you John and Mike</span></div>
        <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_2758"><span><br clear="none">
          </span></div>
        <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_2758"><span>Mike&nbsp;</span></div>
        <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_2758"><span><br clear="none">
          </span></div>
        <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_2758"><span>What
            actually happened that SEM is more than STD. Does it mean
            that some students were careless to answer and did it by
            chance. How can this be corrected?</span></div>
        <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_2758"><span><br clear="none">
          </span></div>
        <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_2758"><span>Parisa</span></div>
        <div class="yiv4173370138qtdSeparateBR"><br clear="none">
          <br clear="none">
        </div>
        <div class="yiv4173370138yahoo_quoted" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_3037" style="display: block; ">
          <div id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_3036" style="font-family:HelveticaNeue, Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, Lucida Grande, sans-serif;font-size:14px;">
            <div id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_3035" style="font-family:HelveticaNeue, Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, Lucida Grande, sans-serif;font-size:16px;">
              <div dir="ltr"> <font face="Arial" size="2"> On Saturday,
                  December 6, 2014 1:01 AM, Mike Linacre
                  <a rel="nofollow" shape="rect" class="yiv4173370138moz-txt-link-rfc2396E" ymailto="mailto:mike@winsteps.com" target="_blank" href="mailto:mike@winsteps.com">&lt;mike@winsteps.com&gt;</a> wrote:<br clear="none">
                </font> </div>
              <br clear="none">
              <br clear="none">
              <div class="yiv4173370138y_msg_container" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_3034">
                <div id="yiv4173370138">
                  <div id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_3033">
                    <div class="yiv4173370138moz-cite-prefix" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_3038">Parisa:<br clear="none">
                      <br clear="none">
                      In your report, the Std. Dev. (observed standard
                      deviation) is less than the SEM (standard error of
                      measurement). The dispersion of the examinees is
                      less than what is expected by chance.<br clear="none">
                      <br clear="none">
                      Alpha (Reliability) = (Std. Dev.**2 - SEM**2) /
                      Std. Dev.**2<br clear="none">
                      <br clear="none">
                      Mike L.<br clear="none">
                      <div class="yiv4173370138yqt1049352687" id="yiv4173370138yqtfd87396"><br clear="none">
                        On 12/6/2014 6:54 AM, Parisa Daftari Fard wrote:<br clear="none">
                      </div>
                    </div>
                    <div class="yiv4173370138yqt1049352687" id="yiv4173370138yqtfd33291">
                      <blockquote id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_3032" type="cite">
                        <div id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417833159289_3031" style="color:#000;background-color:#fff;font-family:HelveticaNeue, Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial, Lucida Grande, sans-serif;font-size:14px;">
                          <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645">Dear

                            Friends,</div>
                          <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645"><br clear="none">
                          </div>
                          <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645">I
                            have run itemman on a set of data and come
                            up with the following result. Why alpha
                            turned to be negative? I appreciate your
                            incisive comments on the result.&nbsp;</div>
                          <div dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645"><br clear="none">
                          </div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">N of Items &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 8</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">N of Examinees &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;22</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Mean &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2.864</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Variance &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.027</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Std. Dev. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;1.013</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Skew &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.061</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Kurtosis &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 0.006</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Minimum &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;2.000</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Maximum &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;5.000</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Median &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 3.000</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Alpha &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; -0.754</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">SEM &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;1.342</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Mean P &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 0.358</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Mean Item-Tot. &nbsp; 0.263</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Mean Biserial &nbsp; &nbsp;0.337</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Max Score (Low) &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;2</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">N (Low Group) &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 10</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">Min Score (High) &nbsp; &nbsp; 3</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style="">N (High Group) &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;12</div>
                          <div class="yiv4173370138" dir="ltr" id="yiv4173370138yui_3_16_0_1_1417812068323_14645" style=""><br clear="none">
                          </div>
                        </div>
                      </blockquote>
                      <br clear="none">
                    </div>
                  </div>
                </div>
                <br clear="none">
                ________________________________________<br clear="none">
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          </div>
        </div>
      </div>
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      <pre>________________________________________
Rasch mailing list
email: <a rel="nofollow" shape="rect" class="yiv4173370138moz-txt-link-abbreviated" ymailto="mailto:Rasch@acer.edu.au" target="_blank" href="mailto:Rasch@acer.edu.au">Rasch@acer.edu.au</a>
web: <a rel="nofollow" shape="rect" class="yiv4173370138moz-txt-link-freetext" target="_blank" href="https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/options/rasch/connert%40msu.edu">https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/options/rasch/connert%40msu.edu</a></pre>
    </blockquote></div>
    <br clear="none">
    <pre class="yiv4173370138moz-signature">-- 
Tom Conner
Professor Emeritus
Department of Sociology
Michigan State University

"I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should 'make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,' thus building a wall of separation between Church &amp; State." Thomas Jefferson
</pre>
  </div></div><br><div class="yqt8937176277" id="yqt47017">________________________________________<br clear="none">Rasch mailing list<br clear="none">email: <a shape="rect" ymailto="mailto:Rasch@acer.edu.au" href="mailto:Rasch@acer.edu.au">Rasch@acer.edu.au</a><br clear="none">web: <a shape="rect" href="https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/options/rasch/pdaftaryfard%40yahoo.com" target="_blank">https://mailinglist.acer.edu.au/mailman/options/rasch/pdaftaryfard%40yahoo.com</a></div><br><br></div>  </div> </div>  </div> </div></body></html>