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</o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--></head><body lang=EN-AU link=blue vlink=purple><div class=WordSection1><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>Imogene: These articles might help a bit &#8211; they are concerned with the inevitable appearance of artificial DIF in most methods of detecting DIF.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>David<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class=1st style='mso-margin-top-alt:0cm;margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:6.0pt;margin-left:0cm'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Andrich, D., &amp; Hagquist, C. (2012) Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning. </span><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>, <i>37</i> (9), 387 - 416.<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:6.0pt'><span lang=EN-GB>Andrich, D. &amp; Hagquist, C. (2015) Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items. <i>Educational and Psychological Measurement</i>. </span><i>75 </i>(2) 185&#8211;207.<o:p></o:p></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><div><p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>David Andrich,&nbsp;BSc MEd <i>W.Aust.</i>, PhD <i>Chic, </i>FASSA <o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black;mso-fareast-language:EN-US'>Chapple Professor&nbsp;</span><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'><a href="mailto:david.andrich@uwa.edu.au"><span style='color:blue'>david.andrich@uwa.edu.au</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>&nbsp; Graduate School of Education<br>The University of Western Australia<br>M428, 35 Stirling Highway, <o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>Crawley, Western Australia, 6009<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>AUSTRALIA<br>Telephone: +61 8 6488 1085;&nbsp;&nbsp; Fax: +61 8 6488 1052<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'><a href="http://www.matildabayclub.net/" title="blocked::http://www.matildabayclub.net/&#10;blocked::blocked::http://www.matildabayclub.net/&#10;blocked::http://www.matildabayclub.net/"><span style='color:blue'>www.matildabayclub.net</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'><a href="http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses" title="blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses&#10;blocked::blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses&#10;blocked::http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses"><span style='color:blue'>http://www.education.uwa.edu.au/ppl/courses</span></a></span><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D'><o:p></o:p></span></p></div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:#1F497D'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><div><div style='border:none;border-top:solid #B5C4DF 1.0pt;padding:3.0pt 0cm 0cm 0cm'><p class=MsoNormal><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"'>From:</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif"'> rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au [mailto:rasch-bounces@acer.edu.au] <b>On Behalf Of </b>Imogene Rothnie<br><b>Sent:</b> Wednesday, 10 June 2015 7:17 AM<br><b>To:</b> rasch@acer.edu.au<br><b>Subject:</b> [Rasch] Plain language articles about DIF interpretation issues?<o:p></o:p></span></p></div></div><p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p><div><div><div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>Dear All,<o:p></o:p></span></p></div><div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p></div><div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>I am looking for some plain language articles about the complexity around identifying (true) DIF . I&#8217;ve been reading (Everett?) Smith&#8217;s chapter in &#8220;Introduction to Rasch Measurement &#8220; edited by same and I have a bare grasp of the issues presented. I was hoping someone could recommend a few review articles or chapters that could clarify and expand on the issues he raises and conclusions made, especially with respect to the argument that sometimes items that appear neutral after a DIF &nbsp;analysis may actually be biased. I don&#8217;t have a degree in mathematics..am much better with words ;-) , so am trying to look for articles that have a smattering rather than a littering of formulae to make the point.<o:p></o:p></span></p></div><div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p></div><div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>Thanks<o:p></o:p></span></p></div><div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p></div><div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>Imogene &nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p></div><div><div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'>--&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p></div><div><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.5pt;font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p></div></div></div></div></div></body></html>